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Male infertility

Male infertility accounts for around 30 per cent of all common causes of infertility, and is linked to sperm quality and quantity changes. In many cases it is possible to apply a treatment that can improve sperm quality.

Semen quality may be considered poor for fertilisation due to undescended testicles, non-production of sperm in the testicles, occurrence of certain infectious diseases, testicular cancer and among other causes. Fertility is also affected by consistent emotional and psychological stress, work-related stress, poor nutrition, obesity, environmental pollution, smoking and alcohol consumption.

Depending on the quality of semen, various treatments are available. If sperm quality is considered 'average', the most commonly used fertility procedure is intrauterine insemination (IUI). If sperm quality is considered 'poor' then in vitro fertilization (IVF) is the most usual choice of procedure. If sperm quality is very poor, micro insemination or sperm injection into the ova cytoplasm (ICSI) can help couples get pregnant. In cases where sperm is not found in semen, sperm is extracted directly from the epididymis or testicle (TESA procedure).